# Introduction to Shaders: Optimizations for Directional Lights

#! /usr/bin/env python

# Optimizations for Directional Lights

This tutorial builds on earlier tutorials by adding:
• Optimizing the Point-light code using Vertex shader
• Using constant/common declaration blocks
This very short tutorial simply optimizes the code we created in our last tutorial. Fragment shaders are called for every fragment (possible pixel) that is not "culled". As a result, they tend to be called far more often than vertex shaders.
Our current code is very wasteful in that it does all of the light calculations for every fragment. We'll split out the calculations so that the vertex shader provides interpolated values to the fragment shader.
import OpenGL #OpenGL.FULL_LOGGING = True #OpenGL.USE_ACCELERATE = False from OpenGLContext import testingcontext BaseContext = testingcontext.getInteractive() from OpenGL.GL import * from OpenGL.arrays import vbo from OpenGLContext.arrays import * from OpenGL.GL import shaders from OpenGLContext.scenegraph.basenodes import Sphere class TestContext( BaseContext ): """Demonstrates use of attribute types in GLSL """ LIGHT_COUNT = 3 LIGHT_SIZE = 4 def OnInit( self ): """Initialize the context"""

# Sharing Declarations

Since we are going to use these values in both the vertex and fragment shaders, it is handy to separate out the constants we'll use into a separate block of code that we can add to both shaders. The use of the constants also makes the code far easier to read than using the bare numbers.
Note that the varying baseNormal value is part of the lighting calculation, so we have included it in our common lighting declarations.
We've also parameterized the LIGHT count and size, so that we can use them in both Python and GLSL code.
lightConst = """ const int LIGHT_COUNT = %s; const int LIGHT_SIZE = %s; const int AMBIENT = 0; const int DIFFUSE = 1; const int SPECULAR = 2; const int POSITION = 3; uniform vec4 lights[ LIGHT_COUNT*LIGHT_SIZE ]; varying vec3 EC_Light_half[LIGHT_COUNT]; varying vec3 EC_Light_location[LIGHT_COUNT]; varying vec3 baseNormal; """%( self.LIGHT_COUNT, self.LIGHT_SIZE )
As you can see, we're going to create two new varying values, the EC_Light_half and EC_Light_location values. These are going to hold the normalized partial calculations for the lights. The other declarations are the same as before, they are just being shared between the shaders.
Our phong_weightCalc calculation hasn't changed.
phong_weightCalc = """ vec2 phong_weightCalc( in vec3 light_pos, // light position in vec3 half_light, // half-way vector between light and view in vec3 frag_normal, // geometry normal in float shininess ) { // returns vec2( ambientMult, diffuseMult ) float n_dot_pos = max( 0.0, dot( frag_normal, light_pos )); float n_dot_half = 0.0; if (n_dot_pos > -.05) { n_dot_half = pow(max(0.0,dot( half_light, frag_normal )), shininess); } return vec2( n_dot_pos, n_dot_half); } """
Our new vertex shader has a loop in it. It iterates over the set of lights doing the partial calculations for half-vector and eye-space location. It stores the results of these in our new, varying array values.
vertex = shaders.compileShader( lightConst + """ attribute vec3 Vertex_position; attribute vec3 Vertex_normal; void main() { gl_Position = gl_ModelViewProjectionMatrix * vec4( Vertex_position, 1.0 ); baseNormal = gl_NormalMatrix * normalize(Vertex_normal); for (int i = 0; i< LIGHT_COUNT; i++ ) { EC_Light_location[i] = normalize( gl_NormalMatrix * lights[(i*LIGHT_SIZE)+POSITION].xyz ); // half-vector calculation EC_Light_half[i] = normalize( EC_Light_location[i] - vec3( 0,0,-1 ) ); } }""", GL_VERTEX_SHADER)
Our fragment shader looks much the same, save that we have now moved the complex half-vector and eye-space location calculations out. We've also separated out the concept of which light we are processing and what array-offset we are using, to make it clearer which value is being accessed.
fragment = shaders.compileShader( lightConst + phong_weightCalc + """ struct Material { vec4 ambient; vec4 diffuse; vec4 specular; float shininess; }; uniform Material material; uniform vec4 Global_ambient; void main() { vec4 fragColor = Global_ambient * material.ambient; int i,j; for (i=0;i<LIGHT_COUNT;i++) { j = i* LIGHT_SIZE; vec2 weights = phong_weightCalc( EC_Light_location[i], EC_Light_half[i], baseNormal, material.shininess ); fragColor = ( fragColor + (lights[j+AMBIENT] * material.ambient) + (lights[j+DIFFUSE] * material.diffuse * weights.x) + (lights[j+SPECULAR] * material.specular * weights.y) ); } gl_FragColor = fragColor; } """, GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER)
The rest of our code is very familiar.
self.shader = shaders.compileProgram(vertex,fragment) self.coords,self.indices,self.count = Sphere( radius = 1 ).compile() self.uniform_locations = {} for uniform,value in self.UNIFORM_VALUES: location = glGetUniformLocation( self.shader, uniform ) if location in (None,-1): print 'Warning, no uniform: %s'%( uniform ) self.uniform_locations[uniform] = location self.uniform_locations['lights'] = glGetUniformLocation( self.shader, 'lights' ) for attribute in ( 'Vertex_position','Vertex_normal', ): location = glGetAttribLocation( self.shader, attribute ) if location in (None,-1): print 'Warning, no attribute: %s'%( uniform ) setattr( self, attribute+ '_loc', location ) UNIFORM_VALUES = [ ('Global_ambient',(.05,.05,.05,1.0)), ('material.ambient',(.2,.2,.2,1.0)), ('material.diffuse',(.5,.5,.5,1.0)), ('material.specular',(.8,.8,.8,1.0)), ('material.shininess',(.995,)), ] LIGHTS = array([ x[1] for x in [ ('lights[0].ambient',(.05,.05,.05,1.0)), ('lights[0].diffuse',(.3,.3,.3,1.0)), ('lights[0].specular',(1.0,0.0,0.0,1.0)), ('lights[0].position',(4.0,2.0,10.0,0.0)), ('lights[1].ambient',(.05,.05,.05,1.0)), ('lights[1].diffuse',(.3,.3,.3,1.0)), ('lights[1].specular',(0.0,1.0,0.0,1.0)), ('lights[1].position',(-4.0,2.0,10.0,0.0)), ('lights[2].ambient',(.05,.05,.05,1.0)), ('lights[2].diffuse',(.3,.3,.3,1.0)), ('lights[2].specular',(0.0,0.0,1.0,1.0)), ('lights[2].position',(-4.0,2.0,-10.0,0.0)), ] ], 'f') def Render( self, mode = None): """Render the geometry for the scene.""" BaseContext.Render( self, mode ) if not mode.visible: return glUseProgram(self.shader) try: self.coords.bind() stride = self.coords.data[0].nbytes try:
Note the use of the parameterized values to specify the size of the light-parameter array.
glUniform4fv( self.uniform_locations['lights'], self.LIGHT_COUNT * self.LIGHT_SIZE, self.LIGHTS ) for uniform,value in self.UNIFORM_VALUES: location = self.uniform_locations.get( uniform ) if location not in (None,-1): if len(value) == 4: glUniform4f( location, *value ) elif len(value) == 3: glUniform3f( location, *value ) elif len(value) == 1: glUniform1f( location, *value ) glEnableVertexAttribArray( self.Vertex_position_loc ) glEnableVertexAttribArray( self.Vertex_normal_loc ) glVertexAttribPointer( self.Vertex_position_loc, 3, GL_FLOAT,False, stride, self.coords ) glVertexAttribPointer( self.Vertex_normal_loc, 3, GL_FLOAT,False, stride, self.coords+(5*4) ) self.indices.bind() glDrawElements( GL_TRIANGLES, self.count, GL_UNSIGNED_SHORT, self.indices ) finally: self.coords.unbind() self.indices.unbind() glDisableVertexAttribArray( self.Vertex_position_loc ) glDisableVertexAttribArray( self.Vertex_normal_loc ) finally: glUseProgram( 0 ) if __name__ == "__main__": TestContext.ContextMainLoop()
With our shaders now reasonably optimized, we can move on to creating point-lights (as opposed to our current directional lights).